Infections by chronic viruses, such as HIV-1 and HBV, represent a major and growing worldwide health concern. With the advent of novel antiviral therapeutics for HIV-1 that include reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, reductions in the rates of infection have been achieved.

Similar therapies for HBV are currently under development. However, the emergence of viruses that are resistant to many approved drugs has revealed the temporary nature of these disease management programs and has underscored the need for identifying new targets and novel therapeutic approaches. In addition, a growing number of patients infected with HIV as well as newly infected individuals have viruses that are resistant to multiple drugs. Therefore, new ways to fight HIV are needed. ITI has three ongoing programs directed to evaluating novel targets for HIV and to developing new therapeutics that address the resistance of the virus to current therapeutics, and that may be used in new combination regimens.